A new device fingerprinting technique can track Android and iOS devices across the Internet by using factory-set sensor calibration details that any app or website can obtain without special permissions.
This new technique — called a calibration fingerprinting attack, or SensorID — works by using calibration details from gyroscope and magnetometer sensors on iOS; and calibration details from accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer sensors on Android devices.
According to a team of academics from the University of Cambridge in the UK, SensorID impacts iOS devices more than Android smartphones. The reason is that Apple likes to calibrate iPhone and iPad sensors on its factory line, a process that only a few Android vendors are using to improve the accuracy of their smartphones’ sensors.
How does this technique work?
“Our approach works by carefully analysing the data from sensors which are accessible without any special permissions to both websites and apps,” the research team said in a research paper published yesterday.
“Our analysis infers the per-device factory calibration data which manufacturers embed into the firmware of the smartphone to compensate for systematic manufacturing errors [in their devices’ sensors],” researchers said.
This calibration data can then be used as a fingerprint, producing a unique identifier that advertising or analytics firms can use to track a user as they navigate across the internet.
Furthermore, because the calibration sensor fingerprint is the same when extracted using an app or via a website, this technique can also be used to track users as they switch between browsers and third-party apps, allowing analytics firms to get a full view of what users are doing on their devices.
In addition, the technique also does not pose any technical difficulties for the entity that does all the tracking.
“Extracting the calibration data typically takes less than one second and does not depend on the position or orientation of the device,” researchers said.
“We have also tried measuring the sensor data at different locations and under different temperatures; we confirm that these factors do not change the SensorID either,” they added.
The sensor calibration fingerprint also never changes, even after a factory reset, allowing tracking entities access to an identifier as unique and persistent as an IMEI code.
Further, this type of tracking is also silent and invisible to users. This is because apps or websites accessing sensor calibration details to compute a device’s fingerprint don’t need any special permission to do so.
Patched in iOS, but not Android
The three-person research team who discovered this new tracking vector said they notified both Apple and Google in August 2018, and December 2018, respectively
Apple patched this issue (CVE-2019-8541) with the release of iOS 12.2 in March this year by adding random noise to the sensor calibration output. This means that starting with iOS 12.2, iPhones and iPads will generate a new fingerprint with every sensor calibration query, making this type of user tracking useless.
Furthermore, to remove any other potential headaches, Apple also removed websites’ ability to access motion sensor data from Mobile Safari.
But while Apple was more prompt to fix this issue, Google was not, and only told researchers they would investigate.
This is most likely because iOS devices are more exposed to this type of tracking than Android smartphones, where a large chunk of the ecosystem is made up of low-cost devices that use uncalibrated motion sensors.
According to the research team, the tracking method they discovered was, indeed, more dangerous to Apple devices, mainly because of device homogeneity and Apple’s tendency to ship higher-quality handsets with very precise (calibrated) motion sensors.
However, similar top-range Android smartphones were also vulnerable. During their tests, researchers said their technique successfully generated sensor calibration fingerprints for Pixel 2 and Pixel 3 devices.
More details about this research are available in a whitepaper titled “SensorID: Sensor Calibration Fingerprinting for Smartphones,” that was presented yesterday at the IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy 2019 (IEEE S&P’19).
A demo page where users can see if their device is vulnerable and generate a sensor calibration fingerprint is also available.
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New privacy bill would put major limits on targeted advertising – TechCrunch
A new bill seeks to dramatically reshape the online advertising landscape to the detriment of companies like Facebook, Google and data brokers that leverage deep stores of personal information to make money from targeted ads.
The bill, the Banning Surveillance Advertising Act, introduced by Reps. Anna Eshoo (D-CA) and Jan Schakowsky (D-IL) in the House and Cory Booker (D-NJ) in the Senate, would dramatically limit the ways that tech companies serve ads to their users, banning the use of personal data altogether.
Any targeting based on “protected class information, such as race, gender, and religion, and personal data purchased from data brokers” would be off-limits were the bill to pass. Platforms could still target ads based on general location data at the city or state level and “contextual advertising” based on the content a user is interacting with would still be allowed.
The bill would empower the FTC and state attorneys general to enforce violations, with fines of up to $5,000 per incident for knowing violations.
“The ‘surveillance advertising’ business model is premised on the unseemly collection and hoarding of personal data to enable ad targeting,” Rep. Eshoo said. “This pernicious practice allows online platforms to chase user engagement at great cost to our society, and it fuels disinformation, discrimination, voter suppression, privacy abuses, and so many other harms.”
Sen. Booker called the targeted advertising model “predatory and invasive,” stressing how the practice exacerbates misinformation and extremism on social media platforms.
Privacy-minded companies including search engine maker DuckDuckGo and Proton, creator of ProtonMail, backed the legislation along with organizations including the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC), the Anti-Defamation League, Accountable Tech and Common Sense Media.
Snapchat says it’s getting better at finding illicit drug dealers before users do – TechCrunch
Snapchat has faced increasing criticism in recent years as the opioid crisis plays out on social media, often with tragic results.
In October, an NBC investigation reported the stories of a number of young people aged 13 to 23 who died after purchasing fentanyl-laced pills on Snapchat. Snapchat parent company Snap responded by committing to improve its ability to detect and remove this kind of content and ushering users who search for drug-related content to an educational harm reduction portal.
Snapchat provided a glimpse at its progress against illicit drug sales on the platform, noting that 88 percent of the drug-related content it finds is now identified proactively by automated systems, with community reporting accounting for the other 12 percent. Snap says this number is up by a third since its October update, indicating that more of this content is being detected up front before being identified by users.
“Since this fall, we have also seen another important indicator of progress: a decline in community-reported content related to drug sales,” Snap wrote in a blog post. “In September, over 23% of drug-related reports from Snapchatters contained content specifically related to sales, and as a result of proactive detection work, we have driven that down to 16% as of this month. This marks a decline of 31% in drug-related reports. We will keep working to get this number as low as possible.”
The company says that it also recently introduced a new safeguard that prevents 13 to 17 year-old users from showing up in its Quick Add user search results unless they have friends in common with the person searching. That precaution is meant to discourage minors from connecting with users they don’t know, in this case to deter online drug transactions.
Snapchat is also adding information from the CDC on the dangers of fentanyl into its “Heads Up” harm reduction portal and partnering with the Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America (CADCA), a global nonprofit working to “prevent substance misuse through collaborative community efforts.”
The company works with experts to identify new search terms that sellers use to get around its rules against selling illicit substances. Snapchat calls the work to keep its lexicon of drug sales jargon up to date “a constant, ongoing effort.”
The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration published a warning last month about the dangers of pills purchased online that contain fentanyl, a synthetic opioid that is deadlier in much smaller doses than heroin. Because fentanyl increasingly shows up in illicitly purchased drugs, including those purchased online, it can prove fatal to users who believed they were ingesting other substances.
In December, DEA Administrator Anne Milgram called Snapchat and other social media apps “haven[s] for drug traffickers” in a December interview with CBS. “Because drug traffickers are harnessing social media because it is accessible, they’re able to access millions of Americans and it is anonymous and they’re able to sell these fake pills that are not what they say they are,” Milgram said.
While social media platforms dragged their feet about investing in proactive, aggressive content moderation, online drug sales took root. Companies have sealed up some of the more obvious ways to find illicit drugs online (a few years ago it was as simple as searching #painpills on Instagram, for instance) but savvy sellers adapt their practices to get around new rules as they’re made.
The rise of fentanyl is a significant factor exacerbating the American opioid epidemic and the substance’s prevalence in online sales presents unique challenges. In an October hearing on children’s online safety, Snap called the issue the company’s “top priority,” but many lawmakers and families affected by online drug sales remain skeptical that social media companies are taking their role in the opioid crisis seriously.
Twitter expands misinformation reporting feature to more international markets – TechCrunch
Last August, Twitter introduced a new feature in select markets, including the U.S., that invited users to report misinformation they encountered on its platform — including things like election-related or Covid-19 misinformation, for example. Now the company is rolling out the feature to more markets as its test expands. In addition to the U.S., Australia, and South Korea, where the feature had already gone live, Twitter is rolling out the reporting option to users in Brazil, Spain, and the Philippines.
The company also offered an update on the feature’s traction, noting that the company has received more than 3.7 million user-submitted reports since its debut. For context, Twitter has around 211 million monetizable active daily users, as of its most recent earnings, 37 million of which are U.S.-based and 174 million based in international markets.
But he also noted that when Twitter reviewed a subset of individual reported tweets, only around 10% were considered “actionable” compared with 20-30% in other policy areas, as many tweets analyzed didn’t contain misinformation at all.
In markets where the feature is available, users can report misinformation by clicking the three-dot menu in the upper-right of a tweet, then choosing the “report tweet” option. From there, they’ll be able to click the option “it’s misleading.”
While Twitter already offered a way to report violating content on its platform before the addition of the new flagging option, its existing reporting flow didn’t offer a clear way to report tweets containing misinformation. Instead, users would have to pick from options like “it’s suspicious or spam” or “it’s abusive or harmful,” among others, before further narrowing down how the specific tweet was in violation of Twitter’s rules.
The ability to flag tweets as misinformation allows users to more quickly and directly flag content that may not fit into existing rules, as well. But the reports themselves are tied into Twitter’s existing enforcement flow, where a combination of human review and moderation is used to determine if a punitive action should take place. Twitter had also said the reported tweets would be sorted for review based on priority — meaning tweets from accounts with a large following or those showing higher levels of engagement would be reviewed first.
The feature is rolling out at a time when social networks are being pressured to clean up the misinformation they’ve allowed to spread across their platforms, or risk regulation that will enforce such cleanups and perhaps even enact penalties for not doing so.
The flagging option is not the only way Twitter is working to fight misinformation. The company also runs an experiment called Birdwatch, which aims to crowdsource fact-checking by allowing Twitter users to annotate misleading tweets with factual information. This service is still in pilot testing and being updated based on user feedback.
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