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GPS on the Moon? NASA’s working on it – TechCrunch

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If you’re driving your car from Portland to Merced, you probably rely on GPS to see where you are. But what if you’re driving your Moon rover from Oceanus Procellarum to the Sea of Tranquility? Actually, GPS should be fine — if this NASA research pans out.

Knowing exactly where you are in space, relative to other bodies anyway, is definitely a non-trivial problem. Fortunately the stars are fixed and by triangulating with them and other known landmarks, a spacecraft can figure out its location quite precisely.

But that’s so much work! Here on Earth we gave that up years ago, and now rely (perhaps too much) on GPS to tell us where we are within a few meters.

By creating our own fixed stars — satellites in geosynchronous orbits — constantly emitting known signals, we made it possible for our devices to quickly sample those signals and immediately locate themselves.

That sure would be handy on the Moon, but a quarter of a million miles makes a lot of difference to a system that relies on ultra-precise timing and signal measurement. Yet there’s nothing theoretically barring GPS signals from being measured out there — and in fact, NASA has already done it at nearly half that distance with the MMS mission a few years ago.

“NASA has been pushing high-altitude GPS technology for years,” said MMS system architect Luke Winternitz in a NASA news release. “GPS around the Moon is the next frontier.”

Astronauts can’t just take their phones up there, of course. Our devices are calibrated for catching and calculating signals from satellites known to be in orbit above us and within a certain range of distances. The time for the signal to reach us from orbit is a fraction of a second, while on or near the Moon it would take perhaps a full second and a half. That may not sound like much, but it fundamentally affects how the receiving and processing systems have to be built.

navcube 0That’s precisely what the team at NASA Goddard has been working on addressing with a new navigation computer that uses a special high-gain antenna, a super-precise clock and other improvements over the earlier NavCube space GPS system and, of course, the terrestrial ones we all have in our phones.

The idea is to use GPS instead of relying on NASA’s network of ground and satellite measurement systems, which must exchange data to the spacecraft and eat up valuable bandwidth and power. Freeing up those systems could empower them to work on other missions and let more of the GPS-capable satellite’s communications be dedicated to science and other high-priority transmissions.

The team hopes to complete the lunar NavCube hardware by the end of the year and then find a flight to the Moon on which to test it as soon as possible. Fortunately, with Artemis gaining traction, it looks as if there will be no shortage of those.

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Report: Windows 11 22H2 update will be released on September 20

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Enlarge / A selection of apps from the Microsoft Store.

Microsoft

Windows 11’s first major update, also called Windows 11 22H2, is due to be released to the public on September 20, according to separate reports from The Verge and Windows Central.

The update has been available in near-final form in Microsoft’s Windows Insider Preview channels since May, and we’ve already covered most of its major changes—Windows 11 22H2 will include a few new security features (and new default settings for existing features), a redesigned Task Manager, new touchscreen gestures and window management features, and tweaks for the Start menu and taskbar, among other things. It also continues to replace old bits of Windows 8- and 10-era UI (like the brightness and volume indicators) with rounded Windows 11-style versions, bringing more visual consistency to Windows PCs.

Like all major Windows updates, it likely won’t be offered to all current Windows 11 users on September 20. Microsoft usually sends the update to a small number of PCs first and gradually expands availability until all Windows 11 PCs have installed it. Users can manually install new updates by downloading an ISO or using the Windows 11 Installation Assistant from this page.

Microsoft’s update plans for Windows have changed a lot in the last year, and they’re reportedly still in a state of flux. The company said last year that Windows 11 would receive major updates once a year and that Windows 10 would move from its twice-a-year update model to the same once-per-year schedule. But even as the pace of major updates has officially slowed down, Microsoft has also made some changes to its development and release practices that allow it to roll out small- to medium-size changes at shorter intervals. In the 10 months since Windows 11 was released, we’ve gotten a long list of user interface tweaks, updates for a number of preinstalled first-party apps, and Android app support. Microsoft also reportedly plans to go back to releasing new numbered Windows versions every three years or so, although the company has neither confirmed nor denied this.

For Windows 10 users who can’t or don’t want to install Windows 11, Windows 10 is getting its own 22H2 update. Microsoft released a preview build for it late last month, but the company isn’t talking about what this update actually does. It’s not likely to include many big user-facing improvements.

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Pixel 6 owners who upgrade to Android 13 can never go back

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Android 13 is slowly rolling out to Pixel phones, but here’s something to consider when that update message finally pops up on your device: You can never go back.

Google is apparently changing the way Android updates are enforced on its latest devices. A new warning message on the Pixel Factory Image page says that the Pixel 6, 6 Pro, and 6a can never go back to older versions of Android once they update:

Anti-rollback was first introduced in Android 8 as a security feature. Google can patch all the exploits it wants, but security fixes are meaningless if an attacker can just roll back a device to a previous version that’s full of security holes. Rollback protection works by recording the newest installed version into tamper-evident storage that persists across device wipes, and now the system knows if it’s on an old version or not. Previously, this feature would just show a warning message on boot (and it looks like that will still happen on the Pixel 5 and lower), but now, Google plainly says of the Pixel 6, “You will not be able to flash older Android 12 builds.”

It’s not clear why only the Pixel 6 is affected by this change. If you don’t count Android 12L, this is the Pixel 6’s first major OS update. The three phones listed are also the only three phones that use Google’s first in-house SoC, the Google Tensor, so maybe the chip is flexing its muscles with new anti-downgrade capabilities.

This isn’t a big deal for most consumers, but in previous Android versions, it was nice to have an escape hatch if Google came out with a particularly buggy first release. If you frequently try out different software builds, this change will presumably mean that you can’t use any older third-party ROMs, either.

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Almost-certain Nest Wifi appears at FCC with Wi-Fi 6E on-board

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Enlarge / We can’t show you Google’s likely new Nest Wifi router because it’s confidential. But “white” and “spherical” are pretty good bets.

Google has a new device awaiting approval at the FCC, and all signs point to it being an updated Nest Wifi router that not only addresses the notable lack of Wi-Fi 6 on its last model but leapfrogs ahead to Wi-Fi 6E.

In FCC documents made available yesterday, Google asked the FCC to keep confidential its schematics and operational details, including an “Internal Proprietary Antenna Solution consisting of 6 antennas.” As pointed out by Android Police, the fillings also show support for the 6 GHz frequencies of Wi-Fi 6E. There are also the standard 2.4 and 5 GHz bands, Bluetooth Low-Energy, and the 2.4 GHz frequencies that smart home connection standard Thread relies upon.

The model number—A4R-G6ZUC—is akin to other Nest products, and 9to5Google says it has confirmed that this is the number for the next Nest Wifi router.

In late 2019, when Google skipped Wi-Fi 6 for Nest Wifi, citing (questionable) cost concerns, we noted that a Wi-Fi 6 router wouldn’t do much for a home mostly filled with Wi-Fi 5 and 4 (i.e., 802.11ac and 802.11n) devices. And yet, had Nest’s router and points used Wi-Fi 6, their ability to use this newly freed-up spectrum space to speak to newer devices—and especially for backhaul moving of traffic from node to node—could have benefitted homes full of noisy devices or those competing with close-by neighbors’ gear.

It’s the same story with Wi-Fi 6E. There’s a small list of devices using the relatively recent Wi-Fi 6E right now: the Pixel 6 and 6a, Samsung’s Galaxy S21 Ultra, some brand-new laptops (not including the latest MacBook Air), and any PC you upgrade yourself with a 6E card. Wi-Fi 6E also lets devices make use of the wider 80 and 160 MHz channels, opening up capacity and reducing interference.

Broadcom chart illustrating the difference between a noisy 5GHz channel and a clean 6GHz channel.
Enlarge / Broadcom chart illustrating the difference between a noisy 5GHz channel and a clean 6GHz channel.

Broadcom

It’s worth noting that this FCC filing is only for a Nest Wifi router. It remains to be seen whether Google will offer Nest hubs with built-in speakers, as with the previous Nest Wifi. One more notable improvement Google could latch onto new Nest hubs would be Ethernet ports, something painfully lacking from the current generation.

In our benchmark review of Nest Wifi, we were impressed with Nest’s coverage of a 3,500-square-foot, difficult-layout home but found lots of room for improvement. Given the other options available at the same price points, it seemed like an option best suited for those already enthusiastic about Google Assistant speakers.

By the time Nest Wifi arrives (likely at an October Google hardware event), there will probably be strong Wi-Fi 6E mesh competition. We’ll see if the product has the same value proposition then.

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