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iPad Pro 2018 review: The best tablet ever is still stuck in computer limbo Review

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Every time I have reviewed Apple’s iPad Pro, the end conclusion has been nearly identical: The iPad Pro is the best tablet money can buy, but despite Apple’s commercials and marketing spin, until there are significant changes to its software, it’s not a full-on computer replacement.

With each iPad Pro release, Apple has made headway toward converting its top of the line tablet into a well-rounded computer, and this year’s crop of iPad Pros is no different.

The amount of technology tucked into the 2018 iPad Pro is fascinating yet disappointing at the same time.

Truth be told, the iPad Pro is a tablet that, in some cases, can pull off being a computer with ease. But, at the end of the day, the iPad Pro is still just a tablet. Not that that’s a bad thing. Let me explain.

Design


Image: Jason Cipriani/ZDNet

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The new iPad Pro is hands down the best-designed iPad the company has released. The flat sides, reminiscent of the iPhone 5, are only 5.9 mm thick.

Apple sent me the 12.9-inch model, but it also announced an 11-inch model. The 12.9-inch model has a footprint of 11.04 x 8.46 x 0.23-inches and weighs 1.39 pounds, whereas the 11-inch model is 9.74 x 7.02 x 0.23-inches and weighs 1.03 pounds.

Also: Apple iPad (2018) review: The best gets even better

I’ve been asked a few times about how the larger iPad Pro feels when carrying or holding it. Balanced is the only word that comes to mind. It’s easy to hold and manage without feeling like it’s overbearing. It’s far more comfortable to hold than the previous-generation iPad Pro.

Both devices use the same LCD display technology Apple used in the iPhone XR. Both devices have a Liquid Retina display with 264 pixels per inch.

As with the most recent iPhone’s, Apple has removed the home button from the iPad Pro. Instead, a small black bezel surrounds the display. Tucked behind the bezel on top of the device is Apple’s True Depth camera system with facial recognition.

Due to the nature of using the iPad Pro in multiple orientations, as opposed to the iPhone primarily unlocked in a portrait orientation, the iPad Pro’s Face ID system works in portrait or landscape.

The True Depth hardware itself is identical to what’s used in the iPhone. Apple had to retrain its Neural Engine to work with the various positions that the True Depth camera can be used in. Apple’s Neural Engine is used for machine learning tasks and is found in the most recent crop of iPhones.

A sleep/wake button is found on top of the iPad Pro, with volume up and down buttons nearby on the right side of the housing. That same side is also where the new Apple Pencil magnetically connects to the iPad Pro for charging and initial pairing. The right side is also where the SIM card slot is on the LTE model.

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Image: Jason Cipriani/ZDNet

The bottom of the iPad Pro has a new type of charging port. Instead of using its own proprietary Lightning port, Apple has made the switch to USB-C. Included in the box with the iPad Pro is an 18W USB-C wall adapter and a USB-C to USB-C cable.

There are four speakers on the iPad Pro, two on the top and two more on the bottom. Apple has redesigned the speakers to fit into the thinner housing but has figured out a way not to sacrifice quality. In fact, I don’t remember the previous generation iPad Pros’ speakers sounding this good.

On the back of the iPad Pro is a 12-megapixel camera, protruding out from the iPad’s housing. It’s the only blemish on the new iPad Pro’s design. However, the camera bump is required because the camera module itself is behind the display of the iPad Pro, instead of the bezel.

Also on the backside of the new Pro is the Smart Connector, used to connect the iPad Pro to accessories such as Apple’s $199 Smart Keyboard Folio. The three dots provide power and data throughput for the keyboard. The Smart Keyboard Folio is redesigned for the new iPad Pro’s and now has two different viewing angles.

USB-C

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Image: Jason Cipriani/ZDNet

By using USB-C, Apple has opened the door for more accessories and peripherals to connect to and interact with the iPad Pro without the need for some sort of connector or dongle. Then again, you’re likely going to need some sort of USB-C to USB adapter to connect some things.

Keep in mind, however, that the iPad Pro is using USB-C with USB 3.1 generation 2 speeds. But it doesn’t support Thunderbolt 3. So, for example, you can connect the iPad Pro to the 21.5-inch LG UltraFine 4K display with a USB-C cable, but you cannot connect it via USB-C to the 27-inch version of the same monitor, because it requires Thunderbolt support. Instead, you’ll need an adapter and an HDMI cable or a USB-C to Thunderbolt 3 adapter.

Shortly after setting up the iPad Pro, I spent an afternoon connecting various types of devices to the iPad Pro, either directly or via an adapter and posting the result on Twitter.

Also: Here’s the iPad Pro that professionals really want

I was able to use a Blue Yeti microphone, import photos from a GoPro camera via a direct USB-C connection, power and use a mechanical keyboard, connect an external display, and import photos from my Fuji mirrorless camera.

I wasn’t able to use a mouse (expected, but had to try), import files from a USB drive or an external hard drive, or use an Xbox controller to play Minecraft.

I also tested the output of the iPad Pro when using it to charge another device, like your iPhone. After connecting multiple devices, I never saw the iPad Pro go over 5V/1.5A of output. Meaning it’s not the fastest charging method, but it’s surely enough to charge an iPhone when you need the added battery life.

The new iPad Pro now supports external monitors at up to 5K resolution. Currently, when the iPad Pro is connected to a monitor, there are two scenarios for how it’s used: Either everything you do on the iPad Pro is mirrored to the display, or apps can use the monitor to display relevant information.

Apple’s iMovie app was recently updated with iPad Pro and monitor support. Users can either mirror the editing screen on the monitor, or with the tap of a button, they can use the display to show the finalized project.

I can see this functionality being useful in educational settings, but in its current state, I don’t see myself ever sitting down and connecting the iPad Pro to a monitor. There’s just no true benefit. You’re still forced to look at and touch the iPad Pro’s display for any input. Support for a mouse or trackpad would be needed to eliminate the need for looking at the iPad’s screen, and that’s just not possible right now.

Overall, the transition away from Lightning to USB-C is a good thing. USB-C accessories are relatively common, whereas using the Lighting port required dedicated devices or adapters and dongles; neither of which were consumer friendly.

The new Apple Pencil

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Image: Jason Cipriani/ZDNet

Apple revamped the Apple Pencil for the new iPad Pro. The new $129 Pencil looks slightly different than the first generation model, thanks to its matte white finish and a flat edge that breaks up the otherwise round housing.

That flat side is the portion of the Pencil that magnetically attaches to the side of the iPad Pro. When attached, a brief animation plays, displaying the current battery percentage of the Pencil.

The magnetic connection serves two purposes: Not only does it give you a place to keep your Pencil within easy reach, but it also wirelessly charges the Pencil. Apple won’t say what wireless charging standard — if any — the company is using, but we do know that you can’t place the Pencil on a Qi wireless charging pad and charge it. Your only option is to use the iPad Pro.

Also: Hands-on with Apple’s new iPad Pro and MacBook Air

Zero arguments can be made about the charging method used for the first-generation Apple Pencil being better. Not only did it look ridiculous to stick the end of the Pencil into the Lightning port of the iPad Pro, but it felt dangerous. Wireless charging the Apple Pencil while simultaneously giving you a place to store it makes sense.

In addition to wireless charging, the Apple Pencil is now touch sensitive. Roughly the bottom fifth of the Pencil reacts to a double-tap on the Pencil. Using this gesture, apps can do things like switch between tools or provide more options on the screen.

Apple’s Notes app supports this feature out of the box, with the default behavior of switching between the currently selected tool and the eraser. So, if you make a mistake while jotting down a note or sketching, a quick double-tap on the Pencil switches to the eraser, with another double-tap going back to the drawing tool you had selected.

Also: How to use Apple Pencil: 21 features, tips, and tricks

Image editing app Procreate was recently updated with Apple Pencil 2 support and has a wide range of features and options that can be triggered with the gesture based on the tool you’re currently using.

The upgrades to the Apple Pencil are something users will find worthwhile, especially when upgrading to the new iPad Pro.

Performance

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Image: Jason Cipriani/ZDNet

The iPad Pro uses Apple’s latest 7nm A12X bionic processor and supports up to 1TB of storage. Although storage options start at 64GB, with 256GB and 512GB variants also available.

Apple promises a battery life of up to 10 hours, or 9 hours when using a cellular data connection over Wi-Fi. I’ve consistently hit the 10-hour mark when using the iPad Pro — both as my main device throughout a day, and when using it as a supplemental device. It’s not much of a surprise, battery life with the iPad has never really been an issue.

Performance wise, Apple and journalists alike have touted benchmarks faster than several Macs and PC laptops. That performance is evident when using the iPad Pro. Apps open quickly, videos are exported with ease, and there’s an overall smoothness to the iPad Pro that exudes speed.

Also: New iPad Pro rivals 2018 MacBook Pro’s performance, say benchmarks

I bounced between apps, used multiple apps in slide over and split screen mode, and typed until I was out of things to say, and felt right at home doing so on the iPad Pro.

For me, the iPad Pro is the perfect device to write on, since it forces me to focus on the task at hand. The new keyboard is comfortable to use, on a desk or on my lap.

I used the Apple Pencil to jot notes during a conference call, and occasionally sketch some stick figures to test out the double-tap gesture. Thankfully, it puts the eraser a double-tap away. Trust me, you don’t want to see my drawings.

I still remain impressed by the lack of latency between the Pencil moving across the screen and when the digital ink shows up. It appears in real time, and exactly where I wanted it to.

The display is sharp, bright, and colors look accurate to my eyes.

Face ID — used for tasks such as unlocking the iPad Pro, approving App Store or Apple Pay purchases, unlocking password managers or banking apps — is just as fast as it is on the iPhone XS Max.

After a couple of days of testing, I all but forgot that the new iPad Pro has Face ID. I walk up to my desk, double-tap the spacebar, and the lock screen disappears, leaving me to continue where I left off. The entire process takes a split second and requires no real thought on my part.

Using the iPad Pro for the past week reminds me of how much I enjoy the overall experience iOS provides when used in a way that it mimics a computer. But it’s, of course, still not quite a computer.

Computer limbo

Mobile Safari.

Right now, that’s my biggest gripe about the iPad’s software. Apple still uses mobile Safari on the iPad Pro, meaning most websites you visit are showing you the mobile version of the site. Mobile websites are fine on a phone, but not on a 12.9-inch tablet. Or an 11-inch tablet, for that matter. Indeed, mobile sites mean that buttons are bigger and easier to touch — important factors on a touchscreen device — but they’re often misaligned and, at times, look downright ugly.

But it’s not layout issues or too much white space that I take issue with — it’s the fact that the iPad Pro is faster than most Macs and nearly all laptop PCs, and yet, it’s somehow not capable enough to run a desktop-class web browser?

Giving users a desktop browser would expand the overall capabilities of the iPad Pro, opening up tools for professionals who rely on websites — full websites — to work.

Also: Does the new iPad Pro signal the end for the Lightning port on the iPhone?

For example, I can’t use ZDNet’s content management system (CMS) in mobile Safari. In turn, I can’t publish stories. So, I can’t work from an iPad.

Perhaps Apple has hoped that websites and developers would build an app that mimics the website, with the added bonus of being optimized with deep integration in iOS. I get that line of thinking, but realistically, that’s a lot to ask from businesses.

If Adobe can bring the full Photoshop engine to iOS and the new iPad Pro, surely Apple can bring the full Safari experience the iPad.

The heart of Google’s Chrome OS is a desktop browser with zero compromises. Once you close the tabs, you’re left with Android apps (and now Linux apps). There’s a tablet-like feel to Chrome OS, especially when using Android apps, but then you launch Chrome, and the device is instantly on par with any other desktop platform.

Google is working hard at backfilling the void of what a browser can’t do by adding Android and Linux apps. It’s time for Apple to do the same, but with Safari.

I’ve focused a lot on just the browser, but there are many different areas that need improvements or complete overhauls before Apple’s computer replacement vision for the iPad Pro can be fully realized.

For instance, add a true download manager that doesn’t leave users guessing what the next step is, and revamp the home screen so that it doesn’t waste space with the outdated app icon grid. Or what about support for multiple users? What about Apple’s own professional-grade video editing tools? Where are the features and apps that justify the “Pro” in the iPad Pro’s name?

Hopefully, iOS 13 will address most of the software issues the iPad Pro currently faces — but the full public release is just under a year away, when it’s likely we will have newer, even more powerful iPad Pros.

Conclusion

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Image: Jason Cipriani/ZDNet

The new iPad Pro is the best tablet I have ever used. But the same can be said about each year’s release. Apple has worked for years on the technology in the new iPad Pro, from Face ID to the Liquid Retina display to the wireless charging required for the new Apple Pencil — it’s all impressive tech.

The starting price of the 12.9-inch iPad Pro is currently at $999 or $799 for the 11-inch model with 64GB of storage. And that’s without the Apple Pencil or a keyboard. The overall cost of the iPad Pro has never been higher.

Also: Peak iPad Pro: The end of major advances?

At $1,327 for a 12.9-inch iPad Pro with the Smart keyboard Folio and Apple Pencil, it’s far from an impulse purchase. That’s what the $329 iPad is for.

I think the justification for the iPad Pro’s price all comes down to properly set expectations. Walking the line of proclaiming the iPad is a computer, but not really a computer, is confusing for consumers.

The iPad Pro is as powerful as a computer and can even complete common computing tasks with ease. But it’s still a tablet with software issues and a largely mobile experience.

Previous and related coverage:

Best Black Friday 2018 deals: Business Bargain Hunter’s top picks

If you’re going to get the most out of this shopping extravaganza, you might as well do it right.

iPad Pro: If you think the iPhone X was expensive, think again

Apple’s new iPad Pro redefines what expensive means for an iOS device, and paves the way for an even more expensive iPhone.

The new iPad Pro has a surprise new feature

Sometimes wishes do indeed become true.

Help! My iPad Pro randomly restarts TechRepublic

Your iPad Pro randomly restarts, and you can’t figure out what is wrong. So what do you do? You ask for help from your fellow members within the TechRepublic forums.

iPad Pro, 2018 review: Blazing speed, but iOS is limited CNET

Big beautiful tablet? Yes. Flexible computer? TBD



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Instagram adds a dedicated spot for your pronouns – TechCrunch

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Seeing someone mention their pronouns in their Instagram bio has become commonplace — so much so that the app now has a dedicated location where users can put pronouns without taking up that valuable profile space.

The company announced the new feature on Twitter, saying that it is only available in a few countries just now, but will be arriving in more soon. I was able to make it work here in the U.S. in version 187 of the iOS app.

To set your pronoun, just go to your profile page, hit “Edit Profile,” then look in the list of items for an empty Pronouns field (this is different from the one deeper in “personal information settings). Tap that and you can pick what you prefer to be called by — up to four items.

Interestingly, the feature does not allow users to just type in whatever they want — presumably so the field is used for its intended purpose and not for gender-related “jokes.” I was able to find most of the pronouns on this list, and my guess is Instagram will add more if people ask. (I’ve contacted the company asking for more information.)

Whatever you choose will appear next to your name a slightly darker type — there’s also the option to show this only to followers, in case a person’s gender isn’t something they want to share publicly. Of course if you want to freeform it or use some emoji or fancy font, you can skip the “official” pronouns and do that instead.

Not everyone feels the need to share or specify their gender, but the practice has become so widespread that Instagram made a smart choice in making it an integrated part of the profile. It both saves space (now you can put “Doom metal fiend” and “Proud mom” on two lines) and endorses gender identity as something at least as important as links and other bio info.

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YouTube announces a $100M fund to reward top YouTube Shorts creators over 2021-2022 – TechCrunch

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YouTube is giving its TikTok competitor, YouTube Shorts, an injection of cash to help it better compete with rivals. The company today introduced the YouTube Shorts Fund, a $100 million fund that will pay YouTube Shorts creators for their most viewed and most engaging content over the course of 2021 and 2022. Creators can’t apply for the fund to help with content production, however. Instead, YouTube will reach out to creators each month whose videos exceeded certain milestones to reward them for their contributions.

The company expects to dole out money to “thousands” of creators every month, it says. And these creators don’t need to be in the YouTube Partner Program to qualify — anyone is eligible to receive rewards by creating original content for YouTube Shorts.

YouTube declined to share more specific details about the fund’s operations at this time, including how creators will be vetted or what specific thresholds for receiving payments YouTube has in mind. It also wouldn’t offer details as to whether YouTube creators could receive multiple payments in the same pay period if they had several videos that would qualify, or any other details.

And while the company stressed that only “original” content would gain rewards, it didn’t clarify how it will go about checking to ensure the content isn’t already uploaded on another platform, like Reels, Snapchat, or TikTok.

Image Credits: YouTube

Instead, YouTube said that more details about the payments and qualifications would be available closer to the fund’s launch, which is expected sometime in the next few months. It pointed out also that it has paid out over $30 billion to creators, artists and media companies over the last three years, and it expects the new fund will help it to build a long-term monetization model for Shorts on YouTube going forward.

YouTube isn’t the only platform to take on the threat of TikTok by throwing cash at the problem.

Snapchat has been paying $1 million per day to creators for their top-performing videos on Spotlight, its own TikTok clone, minting several millionaires in the process. Facebook-owned Instagram, meanwhile, made lucrative offers to top TikTok stars to use its new service, Reels, The WSJ reported last year.

Despite the size of these efforts, TikTok’s own Creator Fund remains a competitive force. It announced its fund would grow to over $1 billion in the U.S. in the next three years and would be more than double that on a global basis. This March, it also added another requirement to receiving the fund’s payments, including having at least 100K authentic views in the last 30 days — a signal that it’s setting the bar even higher, given its current success.

Alongside the debut of YouTube’s Shorts Fund, the company also noted it’s expanding its Shorts player feature across more place on YouTube to help viewers discover this short-form video content, will begin testing ads for Shorts, and will be rolling out the new “remix audio” feature to all Shorts creators.

Image Credits: YouTube

This somewhat controversial feature allows Shorts creators to sample sounds from other YouTube videos for use in their Shorts, instead of only using song clips or original audio. Some YouTube creators were surprised to find the feature was opt-out by default — meaning their content could be used on YouTube Shorts unless they took the time to turn this setting off or removed their video from YouTube.

Since its launch, YouTube has also rolled out other features to Shorts, including support for captions, the ability to record up to 60 seconds with the Shorts camera, the ability to add clips from your phone’s gallery to your recordings made with the Shorts camera, and the ability use basic filters to color correct videos. YouTube says more effects will arrive in the future.

But even as YouTube tries to catch up with TikTok on feature sets, TikTok has been expanding its own effects lineup and becoming more YouTube-like by supporting longer videos. Some TikTok creators, for example, have recently been given the ability to record videos 3 minutes in lengths, instead of just 60 seconds.

YouTube says the new fund will roll out in the coming months and it will listen to the feedback from the creator community to develop a long-term program designed for YouTube Shorts.

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Facebook ordered not to apply controversial WhatsApp T&Cs in Germany – TechCrunch

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The Hamburg data protection agency has banned Facebook from processing the additional WhatsApp user data that the tech giant is granting itself access to under a mandatory update to WhatsApp’s terms of service.

The controversial WhatsApp privacy policy update has caused widespread confusion around the world since being announced — and already been delayed by Facebook for several months after a major user backlash saw rivals messaging apps benefitting from an influx of angry users.

The Indian government has also sought to block the changes to WhatApp’s T&Cs in court — and the country’s antitrust authority is investigating.

Globally, WhatsApp users have until May 15 to accept the new terms (after which the requirement to accept the T&Cs update will become persistent, per a WhatsApp FAQ).

The majority of users who have had the terms pushed on them have already accepted them, according to Facebook, although it hasn’t disclosed what proportion of users that is.

But the intervention by Hamburg’s DPA could further delay Facebook’s rollout of the T&Cs — at least in Germany — as the agency has used an urgency procedure, allowed for under the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), to order the tech giant not to share the data for three months.

A WhatsApp spokesperson disputed the legal validity of Hamburg’s order — calling it “a fundamental misunderstanding of the purpose and effect of WhatsApp’s update” and arguing that it “therefore has no legitimate basis”.

“Our recent update explains the options people have to message a business on WhatsApp and provides further transparency about how we collect and use data. As the Hamburg DPA’s claims are wrong, the order will not impact the continued roll-out of the update. We remain fully committed to delivering secure and private communications for everyone,” the spokesperson added, suggesting that Facebook-owned WhatsApp may be intending to ignore the order.

We understand that Facebook is considering its options to appeal Hamburg’s procedure.

The emergency powers Hamburg is using can’t extend beyond three months but the agency is also applying pressure to the European Data Protection Board (EDPB) to step in and make what it calls “a binding decision” for the 27 Member State bloc.

We’ve reached out to the EDPB to ask what action, if any, it could take in response to the Hamburg DPA’s call.

The body is not usually involved in making binding GDPR decisions related to specific complaints — unless EU DPAs cannot agree over a draft GDPR decision brought to them for review by a lead supervisory authority under the one-stop-shop mechanism for handling cross-border cases.

In such a scenario the EDPB can cast a deciding vote — but it’s not clear that an urgency procedure would qualify.

In taking the emergency action, the German DPA is not only attacking Facebook for continuing to thumb its nose at EU data protection rules, but throwing shade at its lead data supervisor in the region, Ireland’s Data Protection Commission (DPC) — accusing the latter of failing to investigate the very widespread concerns attached to the incoming WhatsApp T&Cs.

(“Our request to the lead supervisory authority for an investigation into the actual practice of data sharing was not honoured so far,” is the polite framing of this shade in Hamburg’s press release).

We’ve reached out to the DPC for a response and will update this report if we get one.

Ireland’s data watchdog is no stranger to criticism that it indulges in creative regulatory inaction when it comes to enforcing the GDPR — with critics charging commissioner Helen Dixon and her team of failing to investigate scores of complaints and, in the instances when it has opened probes, taking years to investigate — and opting for weak enforcements at the last.

The only GDPR decision the DPC has issued to date against a tech giant (against Twitter, in relation to a data breach) was disputed by other EU DPAs — which wanted a far tougher penalty than the $550k fine eventually handed down by Ireland.

GDPR investigations into Facebook and WhatsApp remain on the DPC’s desk. Although a draft decision in one WhatsApp data-sharing transparency case was sent to other EU DPAs in January for review — but a resolution has still yet to see the light of day almost three years after the regulation begun being applied.

In short, frustrations about the lack of GDPR enforcement against the biggest tech giants are riding high among other EU DPAs — some of whom are now resorting to creative regulatory actions to try to sidestep the bottleneck created by the one-stop-shop (OSS) mechanism which funnels so many complaints through Ireland.

The Italian DPA also issued a warning over the WhatsApp T&Cs change, back in January — saying it had contacted the EDPB to raise concerns about a lack of clear information over what’s changing.

At that point the EDPB emphasized that its role is to promote cooperation between supervisory authorities. It added that it will continue to facilitate exchanges between DPAs “in order to ensure a consistent application of data protection law across the EU in accordance with its mandate”. But the always fragile consensus between EU DPAs is becoming increasingly fraught over enforcement bottlenecks and the perception that the regulation is failing to be upheld because of OSS forum shopping.

That will increase pressure on the EDPB to find some way to resolve the impasse and avoid a wider break down of the regulation — i.e. if more and more Member State agencies resort to unilateral ’emergency’ action.

The Hamburg DPA writes that the update to WhatsApp’s terms grant the messaging platform “far-reaching powers to share data with Facebook” for the company’s own purposes (including for advertising and marketing) — such as by passing WhatApp users’ location data to Facebook and allowing for the communication data of WhatsApp users to be transferred to third-parties if businesses make use of Facebook’s hosting services.

Its assessment is that Facebook cannot rely on legitimate interests as a legal base for the expanded data sharing under EU law.

And if the tech giant is intending to rely on user consent it’s not meeting the bar either because the changes are not clearly explained nor are users offered a free choice to consent or not (which is the required standard under GDPR).

“The investigation of the new provisions has shown that they aim to further expand the close connection between the two companies in order for Facebook to be able to use the data of WhatsApp users for their own purposes at any time,” Hamburg goes on. “For the areas of product improvement and advertising, WhatsApp reserves the right to pass on data to Facebook companies without requiring any further consent from data subjects. In other areas, use for the company’s own purposes in accordance to the privacy policy can already be assumed at present.

“The privacy policy submitted by WhatsApp and the FAQ describe, for example, that WhatsApp users’ data, such as phone numbers and device identifiers, are already being exchanged between the companies for joint purposes such as network security and to prevent spam from being sent.”

DPAs like Hamburg may be feeling buoyed to take matters into their own hands on GDPR enforcement by a recent opinion by an advisor to the EU’s top court, as we suggested in our coverage at the time. Advocate General Bobek took the view that EU law allows agencies to bring their own proceedings in certain situations, including in order to adopt “urgent measures” or to intervene “following the lead data protection authority having decided not to handle a case.”

The CJEU ruling on that case is still pending — but the court tends to align with the position of its advisors.

 

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