A service mesh is an emerging architecture for dynamically linking to one another the chunks of server-side applications — most notably, the microservices — that collectively form an application. These can be the components that were intentionally composed as part of the same application, as well as those from different sources altogether that may benefit from sharing workloads with one another.
Real-world service meshes you can use now
Perhaps the oldest effort in this field — one which, through its development, revealed the need for a service mesh in the first place — is an open source project called Linkerd (pronounced “linker — dee”), now maintained by the Cloud-Native Computing Foundation. Born as an offshoot of a Twitter project, Linkerd popularized the notion of devising a proxy for each service capable of communicating with similar proxies, over a purpose-built network. Its commercial steward, Buoyant, has recently merged a similar effort called Conduit into the project, to form Linkerd 2.0.
Meanwhile at car-sharing service Lyft, an engineer named Matt Klein devised a method for building a network that represented existing code — even when it was bound to a legacy “monolith” — as microservices with APIs. This became Envoy, which is now one of the components of a project that includes the work of IBM and Google, to produce a framework called Istio.
Also: Open source SDN project could let network admins duplicate production environments TechRepublic
When it’s doing its job the way it was intended, a service mesh enables potentially thousands of microservices sharing a distributed data center platform to communicate with one another, and participate together as part of an application, even if they weren’t originally constructed as components of that application to begin with.
Its counterpart in the server/client and Web applications world is something you may be familiar with: Middleware. After the turn of the century, components of Web applications were being processed asynchronously (not in time with one another), so they often needed some method of inter-process communication, if only for coordination. The enterprise service bus (ESB) was one type of middleware that could conduct these conversations under the hood, making it possible for the first time for many classes of server-side applications to be integrated with one another.
A microservices application is structured very differently from a classic server/client model. Although its components utilize APIs at their endpoints, one of the hallmarks of its behavior is the ability for services to replicate themselves throughout the system as necessary — to scale out. Because the application structure is constantly changing, it becomes more difficult over time for an orchestrator like Kubernetes to pinpoint each service’s location on a map. It can orchestrate a complex containerized application, but as scale rises linearly, the effort required rises exponentially.
Suddenly, servers really need a service mesh to serve as their communications hub, especially when there are a multitude of simultaneous instances (replicas) of a service propagated throughout the system, when a component of code only needs to contact one.
Also: How the Linkerd service mesh can help businesses TechRepublic
From unknown entity to vital necessity
Most modern applications, with fewer and fewer exceptions, are hosted in a data center or on a cloud platform, and communicate with you via the Internet. For decades, some portion of the server-side logic — often large chunks — has been provided by reusable code, through components called libraries. The C programming language pioneered the linking of common libraries; more recently, operating systems such as Microsoft Windows provided dynamic link libraries (DLL) which are patched into applications at run time.
So obviously you’ve seen services at work, and they’re nothing new in themselves. Yet there is something relatively new called microservices, which as we’ve explained here in some depth, are code components designed not only to be patched into multiple applications on-demand, but also scale out. This is how an application supports multiple users simultaneously without replicating itself in its entirety — or, even less efficiently, replicating the virtual server in which it may be installed, which is how load balancing has worked up to now during the first era of virtualization.
A service mesh is an effort to keep microservices in touch with one another, as well as the broader application, as all this scaling up and down is going on. It is the most liberal, spare-no-effort, pull-out-all-the-stops approach to enabling a microservices architecture for a server-side application, with the aim of guaranteeing connectivity, availability, and low latency.
Also: Why it’s time to open source the service mesh TechRepublic
SDN for the very top layer
Think of a service mesh as software-defined networking (SDN) at the level of executable code. In an environment where all microservices are addressable by way of a network, a service mesh redefines the rules of the network. It takes the application’s control plane — its network of contact points, like its nerve center — and reroutes its connections through a kind of dynamic traffic management complex. This hub is made up of several components that monitor the nature of traffic in the network, and adapt the connections in the control plane to best suit it.
SDN separates the control plane from the data plane of a network, in order that it can literally rebuild the control plane as necessary. This brings components that need each other closer together, without impacting the data plane on which the payload is bound. In the case of network servers that address each other using Layers 3 and 4 of the OSI network model, SDN routes packets along simplified paths to increase efficiency and reduce latency.
Borrowing that same idea, a service mesh such as Istio produces a kind of network overlay for Layer 7 of OSI, decoupling the architecture of the service network from that of the infrastructure. This way, the underlying network can be changed with far fewer chances of impacting service operations and microservices connectivity.
Also: What is SDN? How software-defined networking changed everything
“As soon as you install it, the beauty of Istio and all its components,” remarked Bahubali Shetti, director of public cloud solutions for VMware during a recent public demonstration, “is that it automatically loads up components around monitoring and logging for you. So you don’t have to load up Prometheus or Jaeger [respectively]; it comes with them already. And it gives you a couple of additional visibility tools.
“This is a service-to-service intercommunications mechanism,” Shetti continued. “You can have services on GKE
, PKS [Pivotal Kubernetes Service] and VKE [VMware Kubernetes Engine], all interconnected and running. It helps manage all of that.”
Also: What is SDN? How software-defined networking changed everything
Complementing, not overlapping, Kubernetes
Now, if you’re thinking, “Isn’t network management at the application layer the job of the orchestrator (Kubernetes)?” then think of it like this: Kubernetes doesn’t really want to manage the network. It has a very plain, unfettered view of the application space as multiple clusters for hosting pods, and would prefer things stay that way, whether it’s running on-premises, in a hybrid cloud, or on a “cloud-native” service platform such as Azure AKS or Pivotal PKS. When a service mesh is employed, it takes care of all the complexity of connections on the back end, ensuring that the orchestrator can concentrate on the application rather than its infrastructure.
Also: What Kubernetes really is, and how orchestration redefines the data center
The very sudden rise of the service mesh, and particularly of the Istio framework, is important for the following reasons:
- It helps standardize the profile of microservices-based applications. The behavior of a highly distributed application can be very dependent on the network that supports it. When such behaviors are drastically different, it can be a challenge for a configuration management system to maintain availability for an application on one network that has far fewer challenges on another network. A service mesh does all the folding, spindling, and mutilating — it makes a unique data center look plainer and more unencumbered to the orchestrator.
- It opens up greater opportunities for monitoring, and then potentially improving, the behavior of distributed applications. A good service mesh is designed to place highly requested components in a location on the application control plane where they can be most easily accessible — not unlike a very versatile “speed dial.” So it’s already looking for components that fail health checks or that utilize resources less efficiently. This data can be charted and shared, revealing behavioral traits that developers can take note of when they’re improving their builds with each new iteration.
- It creates the potential for a new type of dynamic, policy-based security mechanism. As we explored last December in ZDNet Scale, microservices pose a unique challenge in that each one may have a very brief lifespan, making the issue of an unimpeachable identity to it almost pointless. A service mesh has an awareness of microservice instances that transcends identity — its job is to know what’s running and where. It can enforce policies on microservices based on their type and their behavior, without resorting to the rigamarole of assigning them unique identities.
Previous and related coverage:
Microservices and containers in service meshes mean less chaos, more agility
For enterprises, it’s full speed ahead with microservices. This may speed up the development of chaos-proof service meshes.
To be a microservice: How smaller parts of bigger applications could remake IT
If your organization could deploy its applications in the cloud the way Netflix does, could it reap the same kinds of benefits that Netflix does? Perhaps, but its business model and maybe even its philosophy might have to be completely reformed — not unlike jumping the chasm from movies-by-mail to streaming content.
Micro-fortresses everywhere: The cloud security model and the software-defined perimeter
A months-old security firm has become the braintrust of engineers working to build the Software-Defined Perimeter — a mechanism for enforcing firewall and access rules on a per-user level. How would SDP remake the ancient plan of the software fortress?
More from ZDNet scale:
The Easiest Way To Back Up Your Android Phone’s Data
Google’s service for saving and restoring photos and videos is called “Backup & Sync.” It works across all platforms. But the tool is pre-integrated into the Google Photos app for Android.
- To create a backup for your photo and video gallery, download and install Google Photos from the Play Store (if you haven’t already).
- You’ll be asked to sign in with a Google Account of your choice.
- After signing in, tap your profile picture in the corner to pull up the preferences.
- Next, navigate to Photos Settings > Backup & Sync and toggle the switch.
- Backup & Sync will automatically start saving your photos and videos to the cloud. Once the process is completed successfully, you will see a green accent and a checkmark around your profile picture.
Unless you’re on a Pixel phone, the storage isn’t unlimited. From June 1, 2021, Google only offers 15GB of free storage. But you can always buy extra storage or adjust the upload size to save space. To change the Upload size, scroll down the Backup & Sync menu and select Upload size. And pick from Storage saver or Original quality modes (via Google).
Also, you can specify individual folders if you don’t need to back up your entire gallery. Go to Backup and Sync > backup device folders and toggle your chosen folders from the list.
Why Your Android Phone Goes Straight To Voicemail And How To Fix It
If you need periods blocked off in your day to focus or relax, the Do Not Disturb Mode is a handy feature to have. You can either block all phone calls or only accept calls or messages from the contacts you want to hear from. If this setting is enabled, it also blocks app notifications, text messages, and alarms. But what if you forget to turn it off? Or switch it on by accident? Depending on who calls, you probably won’t hear your phone ring, and their calls will most likely go to voicemail.
Here’s how you can turn it off in three simple steps.
Swipe down from the top of your screen to pull down your phone’s notification menu.
Check if the Do Not Disturb button is enabled at the bottom right.
If it’s on (the button will be lit). Tap once to turn it off.
Another way to turn off the Do Not Disturb function is to go through the settings menu on your phone.
Go to the Settings app on your phone
Hit Sound & vibration > Do not disturb > Turn on/off now.
If you own a phone that is Android 8.1 and below, press Sound > Do not disturb. Toggle the switch on/off
The Galaxy Note Is Dead, But Its Spirit Will Live On Every Year
According to notorious tipster @Ice universe, Samsung mobile division head TM Roh was quoted as saying that the Galaxy Note will appear in the form of the Galaxy S Ultra every year. The direct implication here is that there will no longer be a Galaxy Note model moving forward. It also suggests that the Galaxy S Ultra models will retain the same form and features as the Galaxy Note, just like the Galaxy S22 Ultra released in 2022.
In terms of features, that basically means that the Galaxy S Ultra model will continue carrying an S-Pen inside its body. That design change started with the Galaxy S22 Ultra this year, in contrast to the previous Galaxy S21 Ultra generation, which had no room for the stylus inside. That same ultra-large phone distinguished itself from the Galaxy S22 and Galaxy S22+ with its boxier design, similar to that of the latest Galaxy Note models. Whether that design will remain going forward is still unknown, but the exact appearance of the Galaxy Note was never its defining feature anyway.
This news, if confirmed to be official, will probably send mixed feelings to Galaxy Note fans. On the one hand, they will be relieved that the S Pen isn’t going anywhere, at least not yet. On the other hand, the brand beloved by professionals and creatives is finally being retired after almost a decade of service. The move will at least help consolidate Samsung’s Galaxy S brand and even make the S-Pen a staple of its flagship — and hopefully, it will at least stay that way for more years to come.
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