The Web turns 30: Dream or nightmare?
In March 1989, Tim Berners-Lee submitted a proposal for an information management system to his boss, Mike Sendall. Sendall’s reply? “Vague, but exciting.” We know it today as the web. We’ve come a long, long way since then.
Berners-Lee wrote, “Suppose all the information stored on computers everywhere were linked. Suppose I could program my computer to create a space in which everything could be linked to everything.” We, of course, don’t have to imagine this. We live in that world.
The idea of a universal, easily accessible, internet-based knowledge system wasn’t new with Berners-Lee. You can trace it back to Vannevar Bush’s “As We May Think” article in July 1945. Personally, I think Ted Nelson’s 1960 Xanadu hypertext vision had even more influence on how the web would turn out. Later, Apple’s HyperCard gave us a hypertext system that might have beat Berners-Lee to the web… except HyperCard was totally network unaware.
CNET: Web’s creator offers a message of hope for its future
So it was that Berners-Lee turned the hypertext dream into our web reality. In October 1990, Berners-Lee used Steve Jobs’ NeXT machines — the BSD Unix-based computers that are Apple Mac’s most direct ancestor — to create the first Web server: info.cern.ch.
By December 25 1990, Nicola Pellow, a visiting student at CERN, created a simple text-based browser. During 1991, the first real data, the CERN telephone directory, was put online and the WorldWideWeb was made available to other CERN users.
During the next few years, the WorldWideWeb slowly spread through academic and research communities.
That’s where I came in. I wrote the first review of the Web in April 1993. I said, “World-Wide Web (WEB) is still a development project, but it is publicly accessible and it provides Internet information hunters with greater power. WEB brings hypertext to the Internet.”
I concluded, “Alas, for now, WEB remains mostly potential. The WEB server is only available by telneting to info.cern.ch or nxo01.cern.ch. Its full hypertext informational resources are limited at this time, but they are growing. WEB is the informational wave of the future.”
Boy, did I ever underestimate it. The web became a tidal wave that would sweep aside such online services as AOL, CompuServe and Genie. None of us knew then that the web would transform the world.
If you turned 30 this year you can’t imagine how different everything was then. The internet already existed, but you had to be a techie’s techie to use it with such programs as archie, ftp, and gopher. If you wanted a book, you went to a bookstore. If you wanted to listen to music, you went to a record store. If you wanted to talk to your sister, you called her on an analog, wired phone.
The early web was also very difficult to use. For example, then the most popular end-user operating system was Windows 3.1. It came without any TCP/IP support — the Internet’s fundamental networking protocol.
To connect with the Internet you needed the notoriously difficult to use Trumpet Winsock program. Even after mastering Winsock, connecting was a real pain. At best you used a then state of the art V32bis modem — with a top speed of 28.8Kbps — to hook up with your local Internet Service Provider (ISP). Connection made, you still had to master a web browser. As I wrote in 1994 about the first popular web browser, “Mosaic is in no way, shape or form a program designed for everyone to use, but anyone who loves computing will enjoy it.”
Now, we get vexed if our connection drops below 10 Mbps anywhere on the planet. The web browser, as Google has shown with its Chromebooks, is all the interface we need for most kinds of computing. We expect to be connected at all times. The web has become as essential for modern life as electricity.
We’ve also moved beyond counting the many benefits the web has delivered to counting the annoyances it has brought us. As Berners-Lee said a few months ago, he used to think that “If you connect people together and keep the web free and open, then people could do good things — what could go wrong?”
We know the answer to that. Berners-Lee continued, “Well, looking back, all kinds of things have gone wrong since.” These include: Fake news; the loss of privacy; personal data abuse; and a 1984-like world where people can be profiled and manipulated. The freedom of the internet is being subverted into tyranny.
Moving on to the next generation of the web, it’s up to us to make a web that fulfills the dream of the internet rather than its worst nightmare.
Two Ways To Use Windows 11 On Your Mac Computer
Evaluating the need to incorporate Windows 11 on a Mac involves multiple considerations, particularly within professional, academic, and entertainment contexts. A primary factor to consider is the significance of Windows 11 for your work, studies, or leisure activities. Many jobs and academic programs rely on specific Windows-exclusive applications. At the same time, certain popular games like Microsoft Flight Simulator are only available on Windows. Having Windows 11 on your Mac could be essential for fulfilling your professional, educational, or gaming needs.
It’s also essential to ensure your Mac is compatible with either Windows 365 Cloud or Parallels Desktop. Check that your device meets the necessary hardware and connectivity requirements, including a reliable internet connection for Windows 365 Cloud. Another aspect to examine is how Windows 11 may affect your Mac’s performance. Review your Mac’s current specifications, including RAM and storage, to ensure it can handle both operating systems efficiently without compromising speed or stability.
Finally, consider the financial implications of running Windows 11 on your Mac. Windows 365 Cloud and Parallels Desktop come with costs, as the first option charges a monthly subscription, and the latter requires a one-time purchase of at least $99.99 or an annual subscription. Assess your budget and the advantages of using Windows 11 on your Mac to make a sound decision.
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5 Of The Most Underrated Ducati Motorcycles Ever Made
The Ducati 916, produced from 1994 to 1998, sports a masterful body style, and the 999, introduced to the market in 2003, departs sharply from the previous footprint. The 999 is more aerodynamic than its predecessor, but the design was created from scratch and didn’t resemble the much-loved 916. Aesthetics alone can speak to much of the rejection this new model experienced.
In terms of performance, the 999 models opted for a high-speed V-Twin engine, reaching a top speed of 168 miles per hour and weighing just 438 pounds. The 999S variant utilized a new engine build, dubbed the Testasetretta, with a displacement measuring 998cc and producing 136 horsepower alongside a six-speed transmission. The torque rating for the 999 (in a 2005 model, specifically) was 106 Nm and boosted to 111.8 Nm with the racing kit.
These bikes feature a narrower engine than previous models, meaning the bike is slim and minimally profiled by design. Tom Cruise even owns one (a 999R), which has given the model some notoriety. The 999 performance redesign improved on an iconic Ducati, but the 916 continued overshadowing this new addition to the lineup.
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